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List of Data

Table of Contents

Excel-data base of archaeological horizons investigated by the means of Transformation Analysis.

Introduction

The data sets listed below comprise the raw material description of every Raw Material Unit (RMU) (excel-sheet ‘Rohmaterial’ / raw material), the transformation analysis of every RMU (excel-sheet ‘Transformation’), the longest possible measurement in mm of every artefact (excel-sheet ‘Maß’/ longest possible measurement), a grouped description of the artefacts belonging to one RMU (excel-sheet ‘Werkstück’ / workpiece) and the attribute analysis of every artefact (excel-sheet ‘Werkstück ausführlich’ / workpiece, detailed). The different features listed in the excel data base are encoded by numbers which are listed below.

Since RMUs are understood and treated as “sub-assemblages”, attributes were counted and measured within each unit in respect to the potential level of sorting, which are single pieces, work-pieces, raw material sources or geological formations (Uthmeier 2004a, 187). Due to that, after sorting artefacts of a specific archaeological layer to different Raw Material Units those units were identified by an individual number. Further denotations are the name of the site, the year(s) of excavation and the name of the archaeological layer.

Due to methodological reasons only lithic artefacts with longest possible measurements bigger 3 mm were analyzed in the course of the Transformation Analysis. Exceptions are retouch chips of tool modification etc. The artefacts were described both on quantitative and on qualitative scales.a

Quantitative data in metrical categories are the total weight (01) and the total number of all artefacts (02) belonging to one RMU (excel-sheets ‘Werkstück’ and ‘Transformation’), and the maximal length of every artefact in mm (04) (excel-sheets ‘Werkstück ausführlich’ and ‘Maß’).

Qualitative data on ordinal scale are: blank type and dorsal cortex remains (nodule, core, cortical blank, partly cortical blank, blank without cortex, blank type not identified (unclassified fragment, chunk) (1-6; excel-sheets ‘Werkstück’ and ‘Werkstück ausführlich’).

Further qualitative attributes in nominal categories are: blank types for technological analysis (7-23 / excel-sheets ‘Werkstück’ and ‘Werkstück ausführlich’), preservation of modified pieces (24-29 / excel-sheets ‘Werkstück’ and ‘Werkstück ausführlich’), and modified pieces, typology (30-50 / excel-sheets ‘Werkstück’ and ‘Werkstück ausführlich’).

Raw Material (‘Rohmaterial’): raw material description (♣)

The macroscopic features of every RMU were described. The raw material description comprises qualitative data on nominal and on ordinal scale. Ordinal features are: raw material source (primary, residual, pebble, not recognizable), and the reconstructed shape of a given raw material (nodule, plaquette, flat nodule, not recognizable). General observations on nominal scale, like features of the matrix (colour, texture, hinges, fractures, fossils, streaks, and bands), features of the cortex (colour, structure), and the presence or absence of patina have been described individually.

Transformation (‘Transformation’): classification of Transformation Sections (♠)

After sorting every artefact to different RMUs, in a next step the transformation section of every RMU according to the given stage within the chaîne opératoire is established. Here RMUs are described according to different transformation classes which derive from their attestable on-site reduction: e. g. the on-site production of blades and tools, indicated by the presence of modified blades which belong to one and the same work piece. The state of cortical remains can give further information about the import state of the work piece. The absence of cortex on artefacts belonging to one work piece might argue for the import of a nodule that already was prepared pre-site. In this example we would deal with the import of a blade core, the on-site production of blades and the modification of working edges. The given transformation class is denoted by a key. For example, Cb encodes on-site blank production from an imported core, or Nb stands for on-site blank production from an imported raw nodule. In our example the key Cm (on-site reduction of a core and the modification of on-site produced blanks) would describe our RMU. You can find the keys on the page Transformation Analysis. The transformation data set comprises quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data are the total number of artefacts and the total weight of artefacts of every RMU. Qualitative data on ordinal scale are artefact categories (raw nodule, core, flake, blade, chip, preparation flake, formal tool) and the state of dorsal cortical remains on the dorsal face of blank products and the reduction face of cores (complete cortical, partial cortical, without cortex). Finally, the on-site transformation is described (e. g. import of core, production of flakes, and edge modification of flakes and discard of the on-site produced tools).

Grouped Attribute Analysis (‘Werkstück’): description of RMUs (♦)

In the excel-sheet ‘Werkstück’ (‘workpiece’) a grouped description of artefacts bigger 3 cm belonging to one and the same RMU can be found. The total weight of all artefacts (01) and the total number of artefacts belonging to one Raw Material Unit (02) is indicated. The belonging artefacts are summarized under the categories of dorsal cortex remains: 1. nodule (completely covered by cortex), 2. core (partly covered by cortex or without cortex), 3. cortical flake or blade, 4. flake or blade, partly covered by cortex, 5. flake or blade without cortex, 6. blank type not identified (unclassified fragment, chunk) (1-6). Like in the excel-sheet ‘Werkstück ausführlich’ blank types and tool types are indicated in hierarchical order (7-50) (see below).

Attribute Analysis (‘Werkstück ausführlich’): description of single artefacts (†)

An attribute analysis was undertaken for every individual artefact. The attributes listed below were published by Uthmeier (2004, 175 ff.). Every Raw Material Unit is identified by an individual number. Further denotations are the name of the site and the name of the archaeological horizon. Every artefact bigger 3 cm is labeled by an individual number (01). Moreover, the quadrant where the artefact was found (02) and the artefact’s longest possible measurement in mm are indicated (03).

The attribute analysis of artefacts was undertaken in hierarchical order. The Arabic numbers 01-03 and 1-50 are identical with the numbers of the excel-sheet ‘Werkstück ausführlich’:

  1. Blank type and frequency of cortex: number of artefacts in ordinal categories
    1. Nodule, completely covered by cortex
    2. Core, partly covered by cortex or without cortex
    3. Cortical flake or blade
    4. Flake or blade, partly covered by cortex
    5. Flake or blade without cortex
    6. Blank type not identified (unclassified fragment, chunk)
  2. Data taken from all artefacts belonging to blank type 3-5: number of artefacts in nominal categories
    1. Flake, simple
    2. Couteau à dos naturel
    3. Flake, crested
    4. Flake, lateral remnant of crest
    5. Flake, pseudo-Levallois point
    6. Flake, Levallois
    7. Flake, Levallois point
    8. Blade, Levallois
    9. Blade, simple
    10. Blade, crested
    11. Flake, transverse (Breitabschlag)
    12. Flake, Kombewa
    13. Chunk
    14. Chip
    15. Bladelet
    16. Flake, surface retouch
    17. Flake, resharpening
  3. Preservation of modified pieces: number of artefacts in nominal categories
    1. Modified piece, surface shaping, proximal fragment
    2. Modified piece, surface shaping, distal fragment
    3. Modified piece, surface shaping, complete
    4. Modified piece, retouch of simple blank, proximal fragment
    5. Modified piece, retouch of simple blank, distal fragment
    6. Modified piece, retouch of simple blank, complete
  4. Modified pieces, typology: number of artefacts in nominal categories
    1. Point
    2. Sidescraper, simple
    3. Sidescraper, double
    4. Sidescraper, convergent
    5. Sidescraper, déjété
    6. Sidescraper, transverse
    7. Sidescraper, more than 2 working edges
    8. Endscraper
    9. Burin
    10. Borer
    11. Backed piece
    12. End retouch
    13. Notch
    14. Denticulate
    15. Bec
    16. Pebble tool
    17. Piece > 3 cm with use retouch
    18. Piece < 3 cm with use retouch
    19. Modified piece, surface shaping, 1 working edge
    20. Modified piece, surface shaping, 2 or more working edges
    21. Biface, remnant

Guido Bataille

References

UTHMEIER, Th. 2004. Transformation analyses and the reconstruction of on-site and off-site activities: methodological remarks. In The Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic of Eastern Crimea, vol. 3, edited by V. Chabai, K. Monigal, and A.Marks. Études et Recherches Archéologiques de L'Université de Liège, 2004. Vol. 104. P. 175-191.

Catalogue
Legend
  • WCM
  • Western Crimean Mousterian
  • CM
  • Crimean Micoquian
  • SL3
  • Starosele-Level 3-industry
  • Transformation
  • Raw material
  • Longest possible measurement in mm of individual artefacts
  • Grouped attribute analysis per Raw Material Unit
  • analysis of individual artefacts
1. Kabazi II
  • Level
  • Industry
  • Feature
  • II/6
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7AB
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7C
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7D
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7E
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/7F
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/8 (II/8AB, II/7F)
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • II/8C
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • IIA/1
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • IIA/2
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • III/1A
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • III/2
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/2A
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/4
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/5
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/6
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • III/7
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • V/1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • V/2,2A
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • V/3
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • V/4
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • V/5
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • V/6
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/2
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/3
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • VI/4
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/5
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/6
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/7
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • VI/8
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/9
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/10
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/11
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/12
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/13
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/14
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • VI/15
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/16
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • VI/17
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦

 

2. Kabazi V
  • Level
  • Industry
  • Feature
  • III/1C
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/2A
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/3-1B
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/3-1C
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/3-1D
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/3-3A
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • III/5
  • (WCM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • IV/2
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥†
  • IV/3
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥†

 

3. Staroselje
  • Level
  • Industry
  • Feature
  • 1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦†
  • 2
  • (CM)
  • ♣♥♦
  • 3
  • (SL3)
  • ♣♥♦
  • 4
  • (CM)
  • ♣♥♦

 

4. Chokurcha 1
  • Level
  • Industry
  • Feature
  • 1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • M
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦
  • O
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦

 

5. Buran-Kaya III
  • Level
  • Industry
  • Feature
  • B1
  • (CM)
  • ♠♣♥♦