Problem Based Learning

Die Geschichte des Problem Based Learning reicht bis in die Antike zurück. Ausgehend von einer Fragestellung, so zeigte es schon Sokrates, wird ein Problem benannt und dann in Stufen erforscht bis es zu einer Klärung des Problems kommt. Seit den 1970ern entwickelte sich an der Medizinischen Hochschule der McMaster University ein Verfahren, das an John Dewey erinnert (Ausgangspunkt des Lernens ist bei ihm eine emotionale Reaktion) und das mittlerweile zu immer größerer Verbreitung über die medizinische und die hochschulbezogene Bildung auf alle anderen Bildungsbereiche gefunden hat. Dabei ist das Problem Based Learning keine Unterrichtsmethode im engeren Sinne, es ist keine klar zu bezeichnente Methode oder Technik mit einigen ausgewählten Regeln, sondern mehr eine Situation, ein Lernereignis oder eine Lernstrategie: Lerner werden mit einem Problem in einem spezifischen Kontext konfrontiert, und nun müssen sie eine Lösung finden. Dies kann im kleinsten Fall einen Teil einer Lehreinheit betreffen, dies kann aber auch als durchgehende und durch Gruppenarbeit gestütztes Verfahren einen gesamten Lehrgang ausmachen. Manche Universitäten bauen zunehmend ihre gesamten Studiengänge nach dieser Methode auf, indem sie diese Lernstrategie vor allem dazu nutzen, das eigenständige Lernen zu fördern.

Zur Einführung (eine exemplarische Auswahl interessanter Seiten):
http://www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbln/tutorials/intro/
http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9812/pbl_1.htm
http://chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm
http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/PBLGuide/PBL&PBL.htm
http://members.tripod.com/~ozpk/pbl.html
http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic43.htm
http://ctl.stanford.edu/Newsletter/problem_based_learning.pdf
http://whyfiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/educators/start/about_pbl.html
http://pbl.cqu.edu.au/content/online_resources.htm
(Central Queensland University)
http://www.hku.hk/speech/pbl/Guided_Tour/guidedtour.htm
(University of Hong Kong)

Zum Zusammenhang zu Dewey vgl. Timothy Koschmann.

What is Problem-Based Learning? (http://www.udel.edu/pbl/cte/jan95-what.html)
Problem-based learning (PBL), at its most fundamental level, is an instructional method characterized by the use of "real world" problems as a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem solving skills, and acquire knowledge of the essential concepts of the course. Using PBL, students acquire life long learning skills which include the ability to find and use appropriate learning resources. The process used in PBL is the following:

  1. Students are presented with a problem (case, research paper, video tape, for example). Students (in groups) organize their ideas and previous knowledge related to the problem, and attempt to define the broad nature of the problem.

  2. Throughout discussion, students pose questions, called "learning issues," on aspects of the problem that they do not understand. These learning issues are recorded by the group. Students are continually encouraged to define what they know - and more importantly - what they don't know.

  3. Students rank, in order of importance, the learning issues generated in the session. They decide which questions will be followed up by the whole group, and which issues can be assigned to individuals, who later teach the rest of the grouop. Students and instructor also discuss what resources will be needed in order to research the learning issues, and where they could be found.

  4. When students reconvene, they explore the previous learning issues, integrating their new knowledge into the context of the problem. Students are also encouraged to summarize their knowledge and connect new concepts to old ones. They continue to define new learning issues as they progress through the problem. Students soon see that learning is an ongoing process, and that there will always be (even for the teacher) learning issues to be explored.
What is the faculty role in PBL? The instructor must guide, probe and support students' initiatives, not lecture, direct or provide easy solutions. The degree to which a PBL course is student-directed versus teacher-directed is a decision that the faculty member must make based on the size of the class, the intellectual maturity level of the students, and the instructional goals of the course. When faculty incorporate PBL in their courses, they empower their students to take a responsible role in their learning - and as a result, faculty must be ready to yield some of their own authority in the classroom to their students.

Wie findet man Probleme?

Die größte Schwierigkeit des Ansatzes besteht darin, für die Lewrner die pasenden Probleme zu finden. Sie müssen kontextualisiert genug sein, attraktiv, herausfordernd, schwierig, aber motivierend, lösbar. http://www.udel.edu/pbl/cte/jan95-chem.html oder im Artikel von Ramirez.

Problem Based Learning in zwei geförderten Universitäten:
http://www.samford.edu/pbl/
http://www.udel.edu/pbl/

Problem Based Learning als Orientierung für die Studiengänge z.B. in Maastricht:
http://www.unimaas.nl/pbl/ und weltweite Angebote: http://interact.bton.ac.uk/pbl/searchCountryArchive.php (Deutschland fehlt!)

 

Weitere Seiten zur Einführung im Bereich verschiedener Universitäten:

Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
http://www.pbli.org/pbl/pbl.htm
(Problem Based Learning Initiative-Southern Illinois University School of Medicine; Barrows)
http://www.unimaas.nl/pbl/
( University of Maastricht )
http://www.udel.edu/pbl/
(University of Deleware)
http://www.samford.edu/pbl/
(The Samford PBL Initiative, Center for Problem-Based Learning )
http://www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbln/
(The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA))
http://www.adelaide.edu.au/ltdu/leap/leapinto/prob_based_lrng.pdf
(University of Adelaide: LEAP PBL Website)
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/clrit/learningtree/PBL/WhatisPBL.html
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/clrit/learningtree/Ltree.html
(San Diego State University (SDSU) & California State University(CSU)
http://cleo.eng.monash.edu.au/teaching/pbl-list
(Monash University's PBL Website)
http://www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/pbl/info.html
(Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction (mcli) PBL Website) http://www.adelaide.edu.au/clpd/materia/leap/leapinto/prob_based_lrng.pdf
( University of Adelaide )
http://www.hku.hk/speech/pbl/Guided_Tour/guidedtour.htm
(University of Hong Kong )
http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/3374.htm
(Higher Education Academy United Kingdom)
http://members.tripod.com/~ozpk/pbl.html
(The TEACHER DEVELOPMENT NETWORK)
http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic43.htm
(Annette Lamb)
http://whyfiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/educators/start/about_pbl.html
(NASA Official )

 Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Hybrid Model
http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/dickie.html
(Curtin University of Technology in Western Australia)

Project-Oriented-Problem-Based Learning (POPBL)
http://www.iprod.aau.dk/~bl/PBL/PBL_front.htm
(University of Aalborg)

 

Fragen zum Kontext des Ansatzes:

Checklisten:
http://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/checklist.shtml

Lernkontrollen:
http://www.indiana.edu/~legobots/q515/pbl.html

Effektivitätsstudien (Beispiele)
http://www.hebes.mdx.ac.uk/teaching/Research/PEPBL/page1.htm
(Project On The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning (PEPBL).)
http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mop4spr01.htm

Literaturlisten:
http://www.unimaas.nl/pbl/
(University of Maastricht) http://www.unimaas.nl/pbl/
http://library.hku.hk/search/d?Problem-based+learning
(Library Universität Hong-Kong)

Artikel:
http://www.csd.uwa.edu.au//newsletter/issue0496/pbl.html
(Boud/Feletti)
http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/facdev/tutorPBL-Aug-18-2005.pdf
(McMaster: Anovice´s Guide)
http://chronicle.com/teaching/books/2001040301b.htm
(Buchbesprechung zu PBL; Barbara Duch)
http://www.gees.ac.uk/projtheme/linktr/EutroPBL1.rtf
Europhication; Problem Based Learning Exercise

Weiterbildung online:
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_11.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg)

Computer Fallbasiertes Lernen:
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_13.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg)

distributed PBL:
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_14.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg)

Seminare im Netz:
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_14_1.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg)

Newsletter:
http://pbl.cqu.edu.au/newsletter/index2.php
Central Queensland University
http://ctl.stanford.edu/Newsletter/problem_based_learning.pdf
http://www.udel.edu/pbl/cte/jan95-what.html
(Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA) A Newsletter of the Center for Teaching Effectiveness
January 1995)

Linklisten:
http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/resources/pbl/resources.html
(Higher Education Academy United Kingdom)

 

Praktische Bedeutung für den Unterricht (eine exemplarische Auswahl zur Illustration):

Allgemein:
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc3learn.htm
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/teacher/teacherout.html
http://www-ed.fnal.gov/trc/tutorial/pbl.html
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/clrit/learningtree/Ltree.html
http://chronicle.com/teaching/books/2001040301b.htm

PBL in großen Klassen.
http://www.chemeng.mcmaster.ca/pbl/pbl.htm
(Problem-based Learning, Don Woods, Chemical Engineering, McMaster University)

 

Fachbereiche und Beispiele

Biologie:
http://www.saltspring.com/capewest/pbl.htm
(Peter Ommundsen, Selkirk College, Canada)

Geographie:
http://www.gees.ac.uk/pubs/planet/pbl.pdf
(PlanetSpecial Edition 2, Nov. 2001; PBL Übersicht in der Geographie)
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/k4/k4modules.html
(Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University)
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/modules.html
(Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University)
http://geoits.tamu.edu/pbl/index.htm
(Designed by The GeoITS Team, Texas A&M University)
http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/ancientworld/index.html
(Stanford Center for Innovations in Learning (SCIL) )

Geschichte:
http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/bubbles/

Mathe und Sience:
http://www2.imsa.edu/programs/pbln/
(The Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy (IMSA))

Sprache:
http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-2/problem.htm
( ERICDIGESTS.ORG )

Politik:
http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/China/ChinaQuest.html
(SBC Knowledge Ventures, L.P )

Multimedia:
http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/
(San Mateo County Office of Education. )

Medizin (Authentic Problem-Based Learning):
Die Ursprünge des Ansatzes kamen aus der Medizin:
http://meds.queensu.ca/medicine/pbl/pblhome.htm
http://www.fhs.mcmaster.ca/facdev/educational.html#
http://meds.queensu.ca/medicine/pbl/pblhome.htm
(Queen´s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada)
http://www.pbli.org/
(Problem-Based Learning Initiative; Howard Barrows)

Schulunterricht allgemein (Praxisbezug)

Grundschule/Mittelschule PBL Einheiten
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_05.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg Studien zum dPBL Grundschule)
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/Zumbach_Kumpf.pdf
(Universität Heidelberg Multimedia Grundschule 2004)
http://zumbach.psi.uni-heidelberg.de/pubs/zumbach_bookc_03.pdf
Universität Heidelberg Hypermedia im Umweltschutz
http://www.aug.edu/teacher_development/PBL/pblwelcome.html
Augusta State University
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc3learn.htm
(North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, U.S.A.)
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/teacher/teacherout.html
(NASA Classroom/Wheeling Jesuit University. Center for Educational Technologies)
http://www-ed.fnal.gov/trc/tutorial/pbl.html
(Northern Illinois University Consortium for Problem-Based Learning; Bill Stepien)
http://edweb.sdsu.edu/clrit/learningtree/Ltree.html
(San Diego State University (SDSU) & California State University(CSU)
http://www.udel.edu/pbl/cte/jan95-chem.html
(Newslatterartikel der University of Delaware) http://sll.stanford.edu/communications/publications/jeepark/pblsite/example2.htm
Stanford Center for Innovations in Learning (SCIL)
http:// pblmm.k12.ca.us/PBLGuide/PBL&PBL.htm
(Project-Based and Problem-Based: The same or different? San Mateo County Office of Education) http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/problearn.html
(Schools of California Online Resources for Education)
http://www.springfield.k12.il.us/schools/pbl/
(Problem-Based Learning @ Lanphier Curriculum Center, Lanphier High School, Springfield, Illinois) http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9812/pbl_1.htm
(Problem-Based Learning: An Introduction, James Rhem, Executive Editor The National Teaching and Learning Forum)

Online: distributed Problem-Based Learning (dPBL)
http://mettleweb.unimelb.edu.au/guide/pedagogy.html
(The University of Melbourne)

 

 

 

 

 

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